10. dag, den 18. juni 2007: St. Petersborg
07:30 udflugt til Pushkin & Peterhof, 60 euro. 08:30 rundtur i Katarina-paladset og promenade i parken. 11:45 rundvisning i den øvre park på Peterhof. 12:30 rundvisning i den nedre park på Peterhof. 14:30 agang til skibet. 19:00 afgang til Kosak show på Hotel Pulkovskaja med "Cossack Folklore Ensemble", 28 euro. 21:00 Harmonikamusik i Neva Bar. 21:00 Orkestermusik i Volga Bar. 22:30 Folklore musik og dans i Volga Bar.

Ekstra udflugt: Med bus til Tsarskoe Selos (Pusjkin). Rundvisning på Katarinapaladset med de porcelænsblå mure og den smukt dekorerede facade, som regnes for perlen af russisk barok. Turen fortsætter til det storslåede sommerslot Petrodvorets (Peterhof) ved Den Finske Bugt. Peter den Stores Versailles omfatter en fornem slotspark med pavilloner, springvand og forgyldte statuer.

Metroen
Der er fire linier: rød, gul, grøn og blå. Pris for en polet i 2007: 14 rubler svarende til ca. 3 danske kroner. Du kan køre ubegrænset længe på én polet.

Der kørte en bus hver halve time mellem skibet og Proletarskaya metrostation, som ligger på den grønne linie. The city has five major railway stations serving various directions: Baltiysky Rail Terminal, Vitebsky Rail Terminal, Ladozhsky Rail Terminal, Moskovsky Rail Terminal and Finlyandsky Rail Terminal. Until recently, the Varshavsky Rail Terminal served as another major station, however, it has been closed down and converted into a railway museum. Saint Petersburg has daily international railway connections to Helsinki, Finland via Vyborg (on the Russian side) and Kouvola and Lahti (on the Finnish side). Two Russian trains - the Repin and the Tolstoi - as well as the Finnish Sibelius operate exclusively on this route (although Tolstoi continues to Moscow). The journey to Helsinki takes just over 5 hours including the time used for border control and customs. The city is served by Pulkovo Airport, which carries both domestic and international flights, and the smaller Pushkin Airport and Rzhevka Airport. Saint Petersburg has an extensive public transport system, including trolleybuses and the tramway network that was once considered the world's largest by track length. The Saint Petersburg Metro (subway/underground) system began operation in 1955, and a number of its ornately decorated stations are tourist attractions in their own right.

At bringe næsten fem millioner mennesker til og fra arbejde kræver et veludviklet offentligt transportsystem. Det har Skt. Petersborg, men det er underforsynet med materiel. Der er et vidtforgrenet net af sporvogne, trolleybusser og busser der næsten altid er overfyldte. Der er nærbanetog til de lidt fjernere forstæder, i selve byen en moderne effektiv undergrundsbane der stadig forlænges. Metrostationerne er i sig selv et studium værd med en for hver station symbolmættet kunstnerisk udsmykning. Metroen er konstrueret energibevidst, idet hver station ligger på en "bakke" i forhold til banelinjen. Toget taber derved naturligt i fart før stop ved perronen, og får en hurtig acceleration ved kørsel fra perronen.

Alexander Nevsky klostret
Det kostede i 2007 100 rubler - godt 20 kr - for en udlænding at komme ind i klostret.

Frommer's Review The reason most visitors come to this complex is for its two cemeteries, which hold the remains of some of Russia's leading cultural figures, whose gravestones are works of art themselves, often reflecting the trade of those buried beneath. The monastery was built in 1710, named by Peter after the 13th-century Grand Duke Alexander Nevsky, who defeated the Swedes in a decisive 1240 battle. Nevsky's remains were brought here; his grave was later joined by those of Dostoyevsky and Tchaikovsky; fellow composers Rimsky-Korsakov, Glinka, and Mussorgsky; the architects of St. Petersburg's key monuments; and the brilliant and remarkable founder of Russia's first universities, Mikhail Lomonosov. Cross the bridge over tiny Chornaya Stream to the central monastery courtyard, before you visit the incongruously cheerful Church of the Annunciation. The churches here are more baroque and neoclassical than the medieval monasteries in Moscow. The ticket desk is just inside the arched entrance; ask for a map of the cemeteries. Allow at least an hour and a half to see the grounds and Lazarus and Tikhvin cemeteries (also known as the Cemetery of Masters of Art).

Alexander Nevskij-klostret er grundlagt i 1710 af Peter den Store på det sted, hvor prins Alexander af Novgorod i 1240 besejrede den svenske hær. Derfor fik han tilnavnet Nevskij af Neva-floden. Her er nu flere kirker og to kirkegårde, hvor mange af Ruslands berømtheder er begravet. The Alexander Nevsky Monastery, intended to house the relics of St Alexander Nevsky, contains two cathedrals and several smaller churches in various styles. It is also remarkable for the Tikhvin Cemetery, where many notable Russians are buried.

Et særligt karakteristisk træk ved Skt. Peterborg som kulturby er, at man i mere end 100 år har begravet kulturpersonligheder på særlige kirkegårde, således forfattere, skribenter og filosoffer på Volkhov-kirkegården lidt syd for Moskvabanegården, mens komponisterne især ligge på kirkegården ved Nevskij-klostret.

Alexander Nevskij Klostret har navn efter en kriger og helgen, som slog svenskerne i 1240. Klosteret for enden af Nevskij prospekt fungerer stadigvæk som kloster. Det blev grundlagt af Peter den Store i 1713, og er et af de vigtigste klostre i Rusland. Treenighedskatedralen er åben for offentligheden og der er gudstjeneste hver dag. Byens Museum for Skulptur ligger på klostres område. Mange af landets forfattere og komponister ligger begravet på kirkegården, bl.a. Dostojevskij, Tjajkovskij og Rimskij-Korsakov. Built in 1776-1790 by the architect Ivan Starov. The cathedral was closed in 1933. However, at persistent demands of believers it was given back to the Church in 1955 and reconsecrated on 12 September 1957, the feast day of St. Prince Alexander Nevsky.

Alexandro-Nevsky Monastery Historic and revitalized Alexander Nevsky Monastery is a beautiful complex of churches dating back to the time of the city's founding and prestigious cemeteries that house the graves of some of Russia's historic cultural giants including Tchaikovsky, Dostoyevsky, Glinka and others.

Peter I founded the Alexander Nevsky Monastery in July 1710 on the left bank of the Neva River close to the Black River in the place where Swedish maps of the 17th century showed the Swedish fort "Landskrona".

Landskron was the first reinforced settlement on the territory of future St. Petersburg, according to S. Shultz in his book St. Petersburg Churches. It was built in the summer of 1300, a year later it was sacked by troops of Prince Andrei, son of Alexander Nevsky.

When Peter I decided to move the holy remains of St. Alexander Nevsky to St. Petersburg, he himself marked the spot where the remains were to be preserved.

A place was selected and a chapel built on the upper left bank of the Neva River in remembrance of the famous Nevsky Battle of 1240 between the troops of young Novgorod Prince Alexander Yaroslavich and Swedish commander Berger, ending in the defeat of the Swedes. Peter I knew the actual location of the battle was higher up on the left bank of the Neva River, closer to the mouth of the Izhora River where a wooden church was already built at the beginning of the 16th century. However, he thought it was more important to put the monastery closer to his new Russian capital city.

After Peter I's armies defeated the Swedes at Poltava in 1709 and seized Viborg, Riga and Reval in 1710, St. Petersburg was considered secure. In 1712 on the left bank of the Black River the first wooden church was constructed on the site of the future monastery. It was consecrated on March 25, 1713 in the presence of Peter I. Soon after, monastic cells were added and monastic life officially began on the site.

In 1717 on the northern bank of the Black River over the grave of Tsaritsa Natalia, Peter's favorite sister who died on July 18, 1716, a stone church was built. In the same year according to the plan of architect Dominico Trezini, construction on a two-story church in the name of St. Alexander Nevsky began. On August 30, 1724 the church was consecrated and the remains of St. Alexander Nevsky were triumphantly placed in the church. The remains were brought to St. Petersburg from the ancient Russian city of Vladimir. The journey took several months. To move the remains a special ark coated in raspberry velvet was built. The holy remains were met and escorted in all the villages and cities on the way with crosses and icons and with short church services and chiming church bells. The day the remains were moved into the new church was celebrated each year as a holiday.

In 1750 Empress Elizabeth ordered that a silver shrine be built to shelter the holy remains. The shrine measured eight feet three inches in length by three feet seven inches in width.

The shrine was decorated with symbols of the famous Battle on the Ice fought on the ice of Lake Peipus in 1242 and the victories of Alexander Nevsky at the Battles of Pskov and Nevsky.

Incredibly, over a ton and a half of pure silver was used to build the shrine.

Each year on August 30 Empress Elizabeth walked in an annual pilgrimage from Kazan Cathedral to the Alexander Nevsky Monastery and after the liturgy had lunch in the monastery.

A new cathedral was built in the monastery from 1776-90 according to the plan of architect Ivan Starov. The new cathedral was consecrated in the name of St. Trinity on August 30, 1790 in the presence of Empress Catherine II. On the same day the silver shrine with the holy remains of St. Alexander Nevsky was moved. In 1797, Emperor Pavel I re-named the monastery the Alexander Nevsky Monastery of the Holy Trinity.

By the beginning of the 20th century the territory of the monastery complex was home to an impressive 16 churches. Today, five still survive: the Holy Trinity Cathedral, the Church of the Annunciation, St. Lazarus' Church, St. Nicholas' Church, and the Church of the Holy Mother of God "the Joy of all Mourners" which is over the monastery gates.

Over the course of two hundred years the churches of the monastery interred royalty and top government and church officials. The office of the St. Petersburg Metropolitan and St. Petersburg Spiritual Committee were also located within the walls of the monastery. In addition, the monastery housed the St. Petersburg Alexander Nevsky religious school. The monastery also owned a large amount of land on the right bank of the Neva River, which it rented to individuals.

The monastery and churches within the complex suffered the tragic destruction of most churches in Russia after the Bolshevik Revolution but have gradually been revived with the end of the communist state.

Already in January 1918 the Bolsheviks attempted to seize the monastery and its valuables. Armed Red Guards forced their way into the monastery and killed Priest Peter Skipetrov when he tried to stop them. But the church bells were rung and thousands of supporters of the church gathered and staved off Bolshevik attempt to loot the church on this occasion.

However, the monastery, cathedrals and churches were shortly thereafter closed, robbed and looted of their church valuables. In 1919, a Communist Square was organized in front of the portico of the St. Trinity cathedral.

340 people were buried from 1919-1945 in the monastery's graveyards, mainly Soviet military and party leaders.

After the end of the Civil War, the looting of churches was ostensibly legalized. According to a Soviet directive of February 23, 1922 all church valuables including gold, silver and valuable stones were to be confiscated. The valuables were then to be handed over to the commission for prevention of starvation (Pomgol).

On March 6, 1922 Petrograd Metropolitan Benjamin was called to the Pomgol commission headquarters. He agreed to the transfer of all the monastery's valuables that were not absolutely necessary for conducting services. Moreover, he agreed that church officials were also to take part in deciding the fate of the churches' valuables.

However, Soviet officals soon became dissatisfied with the agreements and rounded up Metropolitan Benjamin, church leaders, prominent defenders and sympathizers of the church and had them shot on the night of August 13, 1922.

From 1931-36 all the churches and cathedrals within the monastery were closed including Holy St. Trinity Cathedral.

In 1932 a city museum was organized on part of the monastery territory.

The remaining territory was turned over to the city government, which soon distributed the space to a score of different institutes, offices and warehouses.

A new round of destruction began in the interior of the churches and old monastery graveyards. Hundreds of graves were destroyed in the Lazarevsky and Tikhvinsky graveyards. At the same time, the city moved the memorial graves of scientists, artists, writers, poets, composers and government officials to these graveyards. Many robberies and much destruction of the graves also took place at the monastery's third graveyard, the Nicholas graveyard, located just to the East of the St. Trinity Cathedral.

In 1955 after a number of petitions by believers in the city, the St. Trinity Cathedral was finally returned to the Orthodox Church. However, the destruction of church buildings and monastery graveyards continued. And the trading of graves continued well after 1959 when it was officially sanctioned.

Only in 1985 did services begin anew in the Nicholas church, located in the graveyard behind the St. Trinity Cathedral, and the trading and moving of graves also ceased. In June 1990 St. Trinity Cathedral became the center of the celebration of the 750 year anniversary of the Nevsky Battle, and in April 1992 it was the center of the 750 year anniversary of the famous Battle on the Ice fought on the ice of Lake Peipus in 1242. Moreover, on June 3, 1989 the holy remains of St. Alexander Nevsky were returned to the cathedral. Up until that time they were sheltered in the Museum of Religion and Atheism in the Kazan Cathedral.

One of the most fascinating parts of visiting the monastery complex is seeing the graves of many of Russia's famous artistic figures. The Tikhvin Cemetery, to the right, contains the most famous graves. In the far right-hand corner from its gate, you'll see an impressive bust of Tchaikovsky located above his grave. Close by you'll find the graves of Rubinshteyn, Mussorgsky, Rimsky-Korsakov and Glinka. If you follow the wall back in the direction of the gate you'll reach the tomb of Dostoevsky.

The other main cemetery, the Lazarus Cemetery, which faces the Tikhvin Cemetery across the entrance path, is the resting site of several great Leningrad architects including Starov, Quarenghi and Rossi.

Across the canal in the main lavra, or large monastery complex, you'll find the 1717-22 Baroque Annunciation Church on the left, now the City Sculpture Museum, which is open daily except Thursday. About 100 meters further on is the monastery's 1776-90 Holy Trinity Cathedral, which is once again open for worship. Large numbers of worshipers come here each year on September 12 to celebrate the feast of Alexander Nevsky. Opposite the cathedral is the St. Petersburg Metropolitan's House. On the far right of the grounds facing the canal is Leningrad's Orthodox Academy, one of only two in Russia (the other is outside Moscow at Sergiev Posad).

The Monastery is centrally located and easy to find on 1 Nab. Reki Monastyrki. You can enter it from Alexander Nevsky Ploshchad opposite the Hotel Moskva. Tickets are sold outside the main gate and in summer you may have to book an hour or two ahead. Opening hours are 11 am to 6 pm, except Thursday and the first Tuesday of the month.

Indkøbscentret Gostiny Dvor
Gostiny Dvor is a huge department store, which is being gradually turned into a shopping mall, since a significant part of its 164,690 sq. feet. of trading space is rented out to smaller shops. Constructed between 1757 and 1785, Gostiny Dvor has a reputation for being one of the world's first shopping malls and occupies a whole city block on Nevsky Prospect. Although it originally consisted of just 178 separate shops, Gostiny Dvor was severely damaged during the 900-day Siege of Leningrad and was subsequently renovated to vastly increase its trading space and become the largest store in St. Petersburg. A quarter of the expansive complex is currently under renovation but the store remains open for business.

Location: Nevsky Prospekt, 35

Gostiny Dvor in St Petersburg is not only the city's oldest and largest shopping centre, but also one of the first department stores in the world. Sprawling at the intersection of Nevsky Prospekt and Sadovaya Street for over one kilometer and embracing the area of 53,000 m²., the indoor complex of more than 100 shops took twenty-eight years to construct. Building works commenced in 1757 to an elaborate design by Bartolomeo Rastrelli, but that subsequently was discarded in favour of a less expensive and more functional Neoclassical design submitted by Jean-Baptiste Vallin de la Mothe (1729-1800). Throughout the following century, Gostiny Dvor was continuously augmented, resulting in ten indoor streets and as many as 178 shops by the 20th century. By that time, the Gostiny Dvor had lost its popularity to the more fashionable Passage and New Passage, situated on the Nevsky Prospekt nearby. During the post-World War II reconstructions, its inner walls were demolished and a huge shopping mall came into being. This massive 18th-century structure got a face-lift recently and entered the 21st century as one of the most fashionable shopping centres in Eastern Europe. A nearby station of Saint Petersburg Metro takes its name from Gostiny Dvor.

Kazan Katedralen
(The Cathedral of Our Lady of Kazan) Frommer's Review This prominent landmark on Nevsky Prospekt is an example of nontraditional Russian Orthodox architecture adapted to satisfy church tradition. To fit with the city's careful design, the cathedral's columned, curved facade faces Nevsky -- but Orthodox custom requires that the nave run east-west, so the entrance to the cathedral is actually around the side. Completed in 1811, the cathedral was partly inspired by St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. Its centered single dome, horizontal line, and gray color scheme have little in common with the more vibrant, vertical cathedrals typical of previous centuries. The cathedral was named after the icon of Our Lady of Kazan, whose intriguing tale is the first item in church brochures. For more than 60 years it housed the State Museum of Atheism and Religion, and for a while in the 1990s it managed to be simultaneously a functioning church and a museum to godlessness. The museum has since moved and dropped the "atheism" from its name.

Kazan Katedrtalen i St. Petersborg.

Kazan Cathedral (Russian: ????´????? ???????´????? ????´?) is a name of several Russian churches dedicated to Our Lady of Kazan, an icon which the Russian Orthodox Church probably venerates the most. The principal of these are the Kazan Cathedral on Red Square in Moscow (1638, 1932, 1993) and the Kazan Cathedral on the Nevsky Prospekt in St. Petersburg (1810–1811). The latter church was modelled by Andrey Voronikhin after St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. Some art historians assert that Emperor Paul intended to build a similar church on the other side of the Nevsky that would mirror the Kazan Cathedral but his plans failed to materialize. Although the Russian Orthodox Church strongly disapproved of the plans to create a replica of the Catholic cathedral in the Russian capital, several courtiers supported Voronikhin's Empire Style design. The construction was started in 1801 and continued for ten years. After Napoleon invaded Russia in 1812, and the commander-in-chief Mikhail Kutuzov asked Our Lady of Kazan for help, the church's purpose was to be altered. The Patriotic War over, the cathedral was perceived primarily as a memorial to the Russian victory against Napoleon. Kutuzov himself was interred in the cathedral in 1813; and Alexander Pushkin wrote celebrated lines meditating over his sepulchre. In 1815, keys to seventeen cities and eight fortresses were brought by the victorious Russian army from Europe and placed in the cathedral's sacristy. In 1837, Boris Orlovsky designed two magnificent bronze statues of Kutuzov and Barclay de Tolly in front of the cathedral.

Kazan Cathedral in 2006.In 1876, the first political demonstration in Russia took place in front of the church. After the Russian Revolution of 1917, the cathedral was closed. In 1932, it was reopened as the Atheism Museum. Services were resumed in 1992; and four years later the cathedral was returned to the Russian Orthodox Church. Now it is the mother cathedral of the metropolis of St. Petersburg. The cathedral's interior, with its numerous columns, echoes a ponderous outward colonnade and reminds one of a sumptuous palatial hall (69 metres in length, 62 metres in height). The interior features numerous sculptures and icons executed by the best Russian artists of the day. A wrought iron grille, separating the cathedral from a small square behind, is sometimes cited as one of the finest ever created.

Whilst taking a stroll along Nevsky Prospekt you cannot fail to notice the impressive Cathedral of Our Lady of Kazan. Kazan Cathedral, constructed between 1801 and 1811 by the architect Andrei Voronikhin, was built to an enormous scale and boasts an impressive stone colonnade, encircling a small garden and central fountain. The cathedral was inspired by the Basilica of St. Peter’s in Rome and was intended to be the country’s main Orthodox Church. After the war of 1812 (during which Napoleon was defeated) the church became a monument to Russian victory. Captured enemy banners were put in the cathedral and the famous Russian Field Marshal Mikhail Kutuzov, who won the most important campaign of 1812, was buried inside the church.

The cathedral was named after the "miracle-making" icon of Our Lady of Kazan, which the church housed till the early 1930s. The Bolsheviks closed the cathedral for services in 1929, and from 1932 it housed the collections of the Museum of the History of Religion and Atheism, which displayed numerous pieces of religious art and served anti-religious propaganda purposes. A couple of years ago regular services were resumed in the cathedral, though it still shares the premises with the museum, from whose name the word "atheism" has now been omitted.

Statue af marskal Kutozov foran Kazan Katedralen i St. Petersborg, udført af Boris Orlovsky Husk de to statuer af generalerne. Statues of Mikhail Kutuzov and Barclay de Tolley Both Kutuzov and Barclay de Tolley are depicted in their statues in the cannon of Roman Classicism which was fashionable at the time. The sculptor, Boris Orlovsky, dressed both men in togas on top of their military uniforms. Kutozov is one of the most famous figures in Russia's military history, known above all for his victory over Napoleon at the gates of Moscow in 1812. Barclay de Tolley's role in the victory - it was he who advocated the policy of retreating, adopting scorched-earth tactics and inviting the enemy into the depths of Russia - was not acknowledged at first. When the enemy advanced too far for Emperor Alexander I, he replaced de Tolley with Kutuzov, who followed the plans of his predecessor - and won the war. Orlovsky himself had an interesting life. He was born into a peasant family, but his obvious artistic talent led to him being freed by his master and sent to the Imperial Academy of Arts in St. Petersburg. After studying in Italy, he returned to teach at the Academy. His other Petersburg masterpiece is the Angel on top of the Alexander Column on Palace Square.

Location: Nevsky Prospekt, Kazanskaya Square, 2.

Kazan Cathedral The Kazan Cathedral is outstanding example of the early 19th-century Russian architecture, erected on the site of a small stone church to hold the ancient icon of Our Lady of Kazan.

The Kazan Cathedral encircles a small square with a double row of beautiful columns – an impressive colonnade. It took 10 years to construct this church (architect Voronikhin). Kazan Cathedral was meant to be a Russian version of Basilica of St. Peter's in Rome and the main church of Russia.

After the War of 1812 (during which Napoleon was defeated) the church became a monument to the Russian victory. The captured enemy banners were put in the cathedral and the famous Russian field marshal Mikhail Kutuzov, who won the most important campaign of 1812, was buried inside the church.

Marmorpaladset i St. Petersborg Det Tauriske Palads i St. Petersborg

The Marble palace. Constructed on demand of Catherine the II for her favorite, the earl Grigory Orlov. Museum of V.I. Lenin has been situated here since 1937. From 1992 it's a subsidiary of the Russian museum (canvases, sculpture). The palace was built in 1768-1785 by A. Rinaldi. Early classicism style.

The Tavrichesky palace. Erected for Catherine the II and then it was given to the earl G.A. Potyomkin-Tavrichesky. From 1906 until revolution it was occupied by Duma. After the revolution it's been occupied by the Council of worker's and soldier's deputies, higher party school worked here, conferences were held. At the present time it's the Inter-parliamentary assembly of the countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). Built in 1783-1789 by I.V. Starov. Classicism style.

Det Tauriske Palads tilhørte oprindelig Katarina den Stores elsker og rådgiver Fyrst Potemkim (1739 – 1791). Han var meget rig og annekterede Krim i 1783. Da Katarina 4 år senere besøgte halvøen, havde han pudset den op og opført kulisse-landsbyer, så Katarina kunne få det indtryk, at området blomstrede under hans ledelse. Deraf kommer udtrykket "Potemkim-kulisser". Nu bruges det til politiske møder.

Broerne i St. Petersborg
Anichkov broen i St. Petersborg St. Petersburg has the largest number of bridges of any city in the entire world. With a total of 539 bridges (315 in the downtown area alone), not even Venice, Stockholm or Amsterdam can beat the city’s total! The first bridge in St. Petersburg was built in 1703, in the first year of the city's history. It connected the Peter and Paul Fortress with the rest of the city. The longest bridge in St. Petersburg is the Alexander Nevsky Bridge (Most Aleksandra Nevskovo ) – 2971 feet 5 inches (905.7 meters) long. The widest bridge in St. Petersburg (and in the world) is the Blue Bridge (Siniy Most ) - 319' 2'' (97.3 meters) wide. The narrowest bridge in St. Petersburg (excluding bridges in parks and gardens) is the Bank Bridge (Bankovskii Most ) - only 6' 1'' (1.85 meters) wide. The first permanent bridge across the mighty Neva River is the Lieutenant Schmidt Bridge (Most Leitenanta Schmidta ) and was built between 1842 and 1850.

Nevsky is crossed by three canals which are an integral part of St. Petersburg's beauty. There are a great number of rivers and canals in our city - it is a city "on water". That is why it is often referred to as "the Northern Venice" or "the Northern Amsterdam". There is no pleasure like taking a wonderful boat trip along rivers and canals of our "bridge city". Oh, the bridges! They will take your breath away. There are about 200 bridges in the city, and among the most beautiful ones are the Palace Bridge, the Trinity Bridge, the Foundry Bridge and the Bridge of Peter the Great across the Neva river, and the Anichkov Bridge across one of the canals - the Fontanka river. It is situated right in the Nevsky Prospect and is considered to be the most romantic place in our city! The Anichkov Bridge is so famous and loved by all for its four beautiful sculptures of men and horses! They are so expressive and dynamic that you would think they are alive! And each of the sculptures is different!

Peterhof
Hvis man lader sig forarge af de russiske zarers ødselhed i Vinterpaladset, bør man nok overveje endnu engang, om man også skal besøge sommerslottet Petershof. Her indrettede Peter den Store sin sommerresidens med det franske Versailles som forbillede, men det overgår på mange måder sit forbillede. Omkring paladset er indrettet en park på 800 hektar, som er dækket med springvand, skulpturer og haveanlæg, så man næppe kan nå at se det hele på et enkelt besøg. Der er også flere kunstigt skabte vandfald.

Blandt parkens 150 springvand er der flere, hvor Peter den Store har fået afløb for sin skæve humoristiske sans. Ét springvand sprøjter ind over en fredelig bænk, hvis man tilfældigt kommer til at træde på en bestemt sten. Andre springvand er skjult i gruset og sprøjter uprovokeret ud på stien på bestemte tidspunkter. Nogle af vandfaldene i parken skjuler grotter med gyldne skulpturer og hemmelige huler. Parken deler sig i en øvre og en nedre del. Mange turister nøjes med at se den 102 hektar nedre park. Da man alligevel næppe kan nå at nyde hele parken, bør man overveje om man også vil betale for at se slottet. Slottet er 270 meter langt og ligesom Vinterpaladset er det en overflod i guld og skulpturer - om muligt endda mere vulgært. For at være sikker på at få adgang skal man bestille billet på forhånd.

Mere overkommeligt er det at besøge det lille anlæg Mon Plaisir, hvor Peter den Store boede, mens byggeriet af resten stod på. Her er indrettet et museum, hvor man får et mere realistisk indtryk af datidens liv med køkken og andet fra dagligdagen - dog naturligvis af en standard, så en zar ville kunne udholde livet dér. Fra Mon Plaisirs terrasse er der en smuk udsigt over vandet. Petershof blev slemt medtaget under anden verdenskrig. Blandt andet blev den store hovedfontæne næsten ødelagt, men allerede i 1946 åbnede man parken for publikum og udfra gamle fotografier genetablerede man kunstværkerne, hvoraf hovedværkerne stod færdige i 1950. Man kan køre i bus til Petershof, men det mest populære og romantiske er klart at tage en af de flyvebåde, som afgår fra kajen umiddelbart nedenfor Vinterpaladset. Det er det letteste, og her ser man paladset fra sin smukkeste side, idet man kommer fra vandsiden, som det var tænkt af Peter den Store.

Peterhof ligger sammen med en per8lerække af andre paladser rundt om Skt. Petersborg. Under 2. verdenskrig lå de udenfor byens forsvarslinie, og nazisterne ødelagde meget, men alt er nu restaureret. Peterhof kom til, fordi Peter den Store ønskede sig sit eget Versailles. Kommer man fra søvejen imponeres man af den store kaskade med 3 kunstige vandfald, 64 springvand og 37 forgyldte statuer. Springvandet i midten viser Samson i kamp med en løve, der spyr en 21 meter lang vandstråle ud af munden. Dramaet symboliserer Ruslands sejr over Sverige i 1709. Det er en kopi, da originalen blev stjålet af nazisterne. Der er også nogle spøgefulde trick-springvand. I Mon Plaisir boede Peter den Store under slottets opførelse. Ved siden af ligger den bygning, hvor Katarina den Store opholdt sig, da hun af Grev Orlov fik meddelelse om kuppet mod hendes mand. Der er også en lille Eremitage og gæstehuset Marlipaladset. Peterhofs hovedbygning er 270 meter lang. Hele Petershof lå i ruiner efter 2. verdenskrig, men er nu smukt genopbygget.

Peterhof - Petrodvorets Efter Eremitagemuseet gik man i gang med at restaurere byens øvrige palæer og slotte. I Leningrads arkiver havde man omhyggeligt bevaret detaljerede projekter til byens historiske bygninger. Gamle tegninger, udført af Bazjenov, Voronihin, Rastrelli, Rossi og Quarenghi, gjorde det muligt for arkitekterne at genopføre bygningsværkerne i deres oprindelige skikkelse. Restaureringen af de smukke slotte og parkanlæg uden for byen var tusind gange vanskeligere. Her havde frontlinien gået, og fjendens tropper havde stået her i to et halvt år. Den 19. januar 1944 befriede sovjetiske styrker Petrodvorets, og Leningrads kommission til undersøgelse af de fascistiske erobreres ugerninger tog straks ud for at besigtige ødelæggelserne. Kommissionens medlemmer (blandt dem var Iosif Orbeli, Eremitagemuseets direktør, og digteren Anna Akhmatova) nægtede at tro deres egne øjne. Petrodvorets, Peter den Stores og hans efterkommeres sommerresidens med slottet, som er opført af arkitekten Rastrelli, springvandskaskaden med dens talrige forgyldte figurer - alt lå i ruiner. Den sovjetiske regerings beslutning om restaurering af ødelagte arkitektoniske mindesmærker blev truffet i 1945. Men i virkeligheden indledtes restaureringen af Petrodvorets allerede den 19. januar 1944, da sovjetiske soldater og byens få overlevende indbyggere straks gik i gang med at rydde op i ruinerne. De samlede hvert eneste stykke stukkatur op, så videnskabsmændene kunne have noget at gå ud fra ved restaureringen. Alt lå i ruiner, men det faldt ingen ind, at Petrodvorets kunne ophøre med at eksistere. Men forud for Petrodvorets’ restaurering eller rettere genfødelse gik der et enormt forskningsarbejde. I arkiver og biblioteker søgte man efter de originale tegninger, projekter og gamle beregninger, som var nødvendige for en videnskabelig underbyggelse af genopbygningsarbejdet. Man søgte over hele Europa, for fascisterne ikke blot ødelagde, men plyndrede også alt, hvad der kunne plyndres. Og uden de gamle tegninger kunne man ikke gå i gang med genopbygningen. Hvor paradoksalt det end lyder, så er det vanskeligere at genopbygge end at bygge noget helt nyt. Et kunstværk må ikke genopbygges tilnærmelsesvist, men skal svare helt nøje til originalen. Arkitekterne Jelena Kazanskaja og Vasilij Savkov var så heldige at finde 4 projekter, som Rastrelli selv havde tegnet. Facaderne, taget og selv interiørerne. Man havde også Rastrellis egen tegning til kirken i Petrodvorets, som også var ødelagt af de tyske tropper. Men hvordan kunne man fastsætte de nøjagtige dimensioner, proportionerne? Der var ikke længere nogen, der havde erfaring i at bygge kirker. Vasilij Savkov besluttede da, at der skulle laves en model af kirken i en tiendedel af naturlig størrelse. Denne model fotograferede man. I samme størrelsesforhold tog man et billede af Rastrellis gamle tegning. Derefter projicerede man samtidig de to fotografier op på et lærred og lagde det ene ind over det andet. Modellens proportioner var kontrolleret på alle punkter. Nu kunne man gå i gang med at bygge. Det varede flere år. før Petrodvorets havde fået sit ydre udseende tilbage. Så tog arkitekterne fat på at genskabe interiørerne. Og atter gik man samme vej som Rastrelli, som var en fortræffelig dekoratør med en evne til at forene den pompøse barokstil med rokokoens elegance. Arbejdet krævede, at man satte sig ind i gamle håndværk som billedskæring, forgyldning og stukarbejde. Når besøgende i dag går gennem Petrodvorets’ genskabte sale, kan selv eksperter ikke tro på, at al denne skønhed og pragt ikke er skabt på Rastrellis tid, men af unge sovjetiske billedhuggere, som blev uddannet på specielt oprettede forsknings-. og restaureringsværksteder i Leningrad.

Pavlovsk På en arkitektkongres i London endnu før krigens afslutning sagde en aftalerne: »Menneskeheden i hele verden er blevet fattigere med tabet af så fine kulturmindesmærker som Pusjkin og Pavlovsk.« Byen Pusjkin var tidligere den russiske zarfamilies sommerresidens og hed dengang Tsarskoje selo. I dag er byen opkaldt efter Ruslands store digter Aleksander Pusjkin, som gik på et gymnasium her. De mere end 25 km fra St. Petersborg tilbagelagde Pusjkin ofte til fods. Pavlovsk, et gods, som kejserinde Katarina II forærede sin søn Pavel I, ligger lidt længere fra Leningrad. Også her havde de tyske tropper hærget. De to enestående slots- og parkanlæg fra 18. århundrede, som i skønhed kan måle sig med Versailles, blev befriet samme dag, den 24. januar 1944. Slottet i Pavlovsk, som er opført af arkitekterne Cameron, Voronihin og Rossi, brændte. Denne skæbne undgik Katarina-slottet i Pusjkin takket være en sergent med det typisk russiske efternavn Ivanov. Det var ikke nok for nazisterne, at de havde plyndret slottet for dets kostbarheder og forvandlet dets pragtfulde sale til latriner for soldaterne og til hestestalde. Før de trak sig tilbage, anbragte de elleve 1.000-kilograms tidsindstillede bomber i slottets mure. Sergent Ivanov opdagede og uskadeliggjorde dem. Det var tyndet slemt ud i den store, smukke park, som ikke havde sin lige i hele verden, for nazisterne havde fældet 70.000 træer her. Også her var der snarere tale om genfødelse end om restaurering. Og atter gik man i gang med at søge i ruinerne efter rester af slottets indre udsmykning, specielt de forgyldte træskærerarbejder, som havde prydet alle slottets vægge fra gulv til loft. Men her blev arkitekterne stillet over for et nyt problem: i hvilken skikkelse skulle man genskabe Katarina-slottet i Pusjkin ? Man startede med at bygge slottet i 1718, og igennem næsten 100 år blev der konstant bygget om og bygget til. Blandt slottets mange arkitekter var den ordinære Braunstein, den talentfulde Trezzini og den geniale Rastrelli. Det blev enstemmigt besluttet at lægge Rastrellis ideer til grund for genskabelsen af slottet og fjerne alle senere lag. Også Pavlovsk blev genfødt. Arbejdet her blev ledet af Fjodor Olejnik, som lige før krigen havde afsluttet sin arkitektuddannelse og derefter var taget til fronten som frivillig. Allerede i sin studietid havde han i Pavlovsk restaureret Pietro Gonzagas smukke fresker og foretaget mange arkitektoniske opmålinger. I ledige stunder i skyttegraven tegnede han Pavlovsk-slottet, sådan som han huskede Camerons, Voronihins og Rossis mesterværk, som mindede om et antikt tempel. Under restaureringsarbejdet var Olejniks tegninger, både dem han havde lavet før og under krigen, af uvurderlig betydning. Pavlovsk-slottet blev endog endnu smukkere, end det havde været før krigen. I sin tid, da slottet blev opført, ønskede Pavel I ikke at vente på, at malere skulle udsmykke Tronsalens loft, sådan som det havde været Gonzagas mening. Efter krigen fandt man i arkiverne et lille stykke papir med Gonzagas udkast til den påtænkte udsmykning. Og på grundlag af det gik en gruppe kunstmalere under ledelse af Anatolij Treskin i gang med at realisere Gonzagas idé. Takket være dette loftsmaleri er det, som om den kæmpestore Tronsal bliver løftet opad. Slottets pragtfulde parketgulve, smukke kammer og udsøgte stukkatur - alt er restaureret. Og dets malerier, skulpturer og porcelæn, som det med så stort besvær var lykkedes at redde under krigen, har indtaget deres gamle plads. I hver sal hænger store fotografier, som viser, hvordan salen så ud, før man gik i gang med restaureringsarbejdet. I selve Leningrad er næsten alle bygninger genopført. Og mange palæer er ført helt tilbage til deres oprindelige skikkelse, som var blevet forvansket af senere tiders ombygninger og istandsættelser. Hvad angår slottene uden for byen, er der endnu lang vej igen. F.eks. er slottet i Gattjina og mange godser i byens omegn endnu ikke genopført, og på visse slotte er salenes interiører ikke restaureret. Men turen kommer også til dem. Restaureringsarbejdet antager større omfang for hvert år. Den russiske musikkulturs historie er snævert knyttet til den tidligere Adelsforsamlings sal med dens hvide marmorsøjler, purpurrøde plysstole og store krystallysekroner. Mange værker af Tjajkovskij, Rimskij-Korsakov, Borodin og Musorgskij blev første gang opført her, og mange fremtrædende russiske og udenlandske dirigenter, komponister og solister har givet koncert her. Men før revolutionen havde naturligvis kun den aristokratiske elite adgang hertil. Det blev ændret med Oktoberrevolutionen. Endnu mens borgerkrigen rasede, og folk døde af sult og epidemier, drog den unge sovjetrepublik omsorg for at delagtiggøre de brede folkemasser i kulturen. I 1921 vedtog Folkekommissariatet for oplysning (undervisningsministeriet) »Forordningen om Statsfilharmonien i Petrograd«. Således blev der for første gang i musikkulturens historie skabt en statslig koncertinstitution, hvis opgave gik ud på at bringe de bedste musikværker ud til folket. Og allerede dengang, i sommeren 1921, skete det, som de aristokratiske intellektuelle ville have forsvoret: 54 symfoniske koncerter samlede fuldt hus i løbet af de tre sommermåneder i salen, som rummer 2.500 mennesker. Tilhørerne var mere end beskedent klædt, men de lyttede interesseret og begejstret til musikken. I de 60 sæsoner siden da har der altid været udsolgt til koncerterne i Filharmoniens sal med de hvide marmorsøjler. Under Leningrads belejring, da Hitlers tropper stod ved dens indfaldsveje og var klar til når som helst at marchere ind i byen i triumf, opførte musikere, som var afkræftet af sult og kulde, Dmitrij Sjostakovitjs 7. symfoni, Leningrad-symfonien, her i denne sal, som dengang var halvmørk og uopvarmet. Denne symfoni, som Sjostakovitj havde skrevet i den belejrede by, var som en hymne til dens enestående tapperhed.

Pusjkin ligger 25 km syd for Leningrad. Stedet hed tidligere Tsarskoje selo, men er nu opkaldt efter den store russiske digter, som gik i skole her og i øvrigt ejede et sommerhus i omegnen. I zartiden flyttede aristokratiet herud om sommeren for et være i nærheden af den kejserlige familie og samtidig slippe for heden og den trykkende luft i hovedstaden. Efter revolutionen i 1905 boede zar Nikolaj II og hans familie mere eller mindre permanent i Pusjkin, og i månederne efter martsrevolutionen i 1917 sad de i husarrest her Tyskerne indtog Pusjkin i 1941, og da de trak sig tilbage igen tre år senere, sprængte de stenene i luften. Katarina-slottet fra 1750’erne er bygget i barokstil af den store, italienske arkitekt Bartolomeo Rastrelli (det var før, han tegnede Vinterpaladset) til afløsning for en ældre bygning. Bygherren var kejserinde Elizabeth, og slottet er opkaldt efter hendes mor, Katarina, som var gift med Peter den Store. Hendes efterfølger, Katarina den Store indkaldte en ny arkitekt, skotten Charles Cameron, til et nyindrette slottet efter den klassicistiske model hun altid sværmede for. Resultatet er gennemført overdådigt. Væggene i Billedgalleriet er tegnet af Rastrelli og er dækket af over 130 malerier - de fleste originale. Den Grønne Spisesal er dekoreret med elegante stukrelieffer, og væggene i den Kineserblå Salon er betrukket med malede, kinesiske silketapeter. Badene i en særlig bygning ved siden af slottet er overdådigt indlagt med agat og jaspis. Men der er meget andet et se foruden Katarina-slottet. Fra enden af slottet fører en allé, Ulitsa Vasenko, forbi statuen af Pusjkin til det gule og det hvide Alexanderslot, hvor Nikolaj II boede fra 1905 til 1917, og hvor hans børn legede i dammen i haven. Katarinaparken er en lise at opholde sig i om sommeren og fuld af tidens snurrige påfund; et tyrkisk bad som ligner en moske, en kinesisk pavillon og en kirkegård for Katarinas skødehunde. Pavlovsk ligger kun nogle få kilometer fra Pusjkin. Paladset med sin beskedne park på 526 hektarer var en gave fra Katarina den Store til hendes søn Paul. Det er bygget i nyklassicisticsk stil af skotten Charles Cameron og stod færdigt i 1786. Fredssalen og Krigssalen på første sal er nogle af paladsets smukkeste, og parken er storslået.

Petrodvorets (Peters Palads) ligger på sydkysten at Den Finske Bugt 29 km. vest for Leningrad. Om sommeren (maj til september) kommer man hurtigst derhen pr. hydrofoil på Malaja Neva. Ellers kan men tage toget fra Baltikum-banegården og derefter en bus. I zartiden hed Petrodvorets: Peterhof. Slottet blev bygget til Peter den Store, så han kunne overvåge anlægget af den store fæstning: Kronstadt. Oprindeligt var hans planer for slottet ret beskedne, men efter et besøg i Versailles i 1717 blev planerne ændret. Det lille Monplaisir-slot ud til havet stod færdigt ved Peters død i 1725, mens Det Store Palads bogstaveligt talt skulle bygges helt om, og først blev fuldført i 1754. Hovedattraktionen er imidlertid Den Store Kaskade i parken; en pragtfuld vandkunst af fontæner, terrasser og vandfald ned mod havet.

11. dag, den 19. juni 2007: Hjemrejse
Efter morgenmaden er det tid til at sige farvel til vores skib og dets besætning. Vi bliver hentet i bus og kører til lufthavnen, hvor flyet hjem til Danmark venter.

10:00-11:25 flod- og kanalrundfart, 28 euro.
12:00 afgang fra byen til lufthavnen.
Mareridt med at stå i kø 3-4 steder.

The State Russian Museum (Mikhailov Palace) Address: 4, Inzhenernaya St. Open: 10:00-17:00 (Mondays 10:00-16:00) Closed: Tuesday The State Russian Museum occupies magnificent buildings located in the historical center of Saint Petersburg – the Stroganov and Marble palaces, Mikhailovsky (Engineer) castle and the main building, the Mikhailovsky palace with the Benois wing. Mikhailov Palace was built to the design of architect Karlo Rossi for Great Prince Mikhail, a brother of Russian Emperor Alexander I. The State Russian Museum contains the world's largest collection of Russian fine art. The collections number over 400,000 exhibits. The exposition of the Museum opens with the Ancient Russian painting department, where the visitors can see the icons by Andrei Rublev, Dionisiy, Simon Ushakov, as well as by unknown masters of Novgorodian and other schools of Russian icon painting. Besides there are marvelous portraits by A. Antropov, F. Rokotov, D. Levitsky, sculptural works by B. Rastrelli, F. Shubin, M. Kozlovsky, an interesting collection of works of the first half of the 19th century - "The Last Day of Pompeii" by K. Brullov, "The Brazen Serpent" by F. Bruni, "The Tidal Wave" by I. Aivazovsky and etc.

Blodkirken
Grundstenen til kirken blev lagt i oktober 1883 og stod færdig i 1907, det er en efterligning af Vasilij-katedralen ved Den Røde Plads i Moskva. Stalin lukkede kirken i 1931 og i en årrække blev den brugt som kartoffellager.

Frommer's Review St. Petersburg's most-photographed church, this cathedral is a mountain of blindingly bright, beveled domes topped by glistening gold crosses. Its architects sought to revive medieval Russian architectural styles, but the cathedral's bold cheeriness lacks the brooding mysticism of similar churches in Moscow, instead reflecting the renewed nationalism and material prosperity of late-19th-century Russia. It was built on the site where Czar Alexander II was assassinated in 1881, prompting residents to come up with the Spilled Blood reference. Its official name is Church of the Resurrection of Christ. Alexander II was the forward-thinking czar who finally freed Russia's serfs in 1861, but he grew conservative in his later years and was targeted by a group of revolutionaries demanding more reform. The church's interior mosaics were created by Russia's top artists of the day, including Art Nouveau master Mikhail Vrubel.

Church of the Resurrection of Jesus Christ („Our Savior on the Spilled Blood”) Address: 2, Griboedov kanal, Open: 11:00-18:00, Closed: Wednesdays. This church is known as the Church of the Savior on Blood because it marks the spot where Alexander II died of wounds inflicted in an attack by the terrorist group on March 1, 1881. Immediately, his heir, Alexander III, declared his intention to erect a church on the site in his father's memory. Designed by Alfred Parland in the style of 16th and 17th-century Russian churches, the Church of the Resurrection provides a contrast to its surroundings of Baroque, Classical and Modernist architecture. The church has an outstanding and varied collection of mosaic icons. Several icons were completed in the traditions of academic painting, modernist style and Byzantine icon painting. The large icon of St. Alexander Nevsky was created according to a design by Nesterov. The icons of the main iconostasis Mother of God with Child and the Savior were painted to designs by Vasnetsov. The walls and ceiling inside the Church are completely covered in intricately detailed mosaics - the main pictures being biblical scenes or figures - but with very fine patterned borders setting off each picture.

This marvelous Russian-style church was built on the spot where Emperor Alexander II was assassinated in March 1881. After assuming power in 1855 in the wake of Russia’s disastrous defeat in the Crimean war against Britain, France and Turkey, Alexander II initiated a number of reforms. In 1861 he freed the Russian serfs (peasants, who were almost enslaved to their owners) from their ties to their masters and undertook a rigorous program of military, judicial and urban reforms, never before attempted in Russia. However, during the second half of his reign Alexander II grew wary of the dangers of his system of reforms, having only barely survived a series of attempts on his life, including an explosion in the Winter Palace and the derailment of a train. Alexander II was finally assassinated in 1881 by a group of revolutionaries, who threw a bomb at his royal carriage.

The decision was taken to build a church on the spot where the Emperor was mortally wounded. The church was built between 1883 and 1907 and was officially called the Resurrection of Christ Church (a.k.a. The Church of Our Savior on Spilled Blood ). The construction of the church was almost entirely funded by the Imperial family and thousands of private donators. Both the interior and exterior of the church is decorated with incredibly detailed mosaics, designed and created by the most prominent Russian artists of the day (V.M. Vasnetsov, M.V. Nesterov and M.A. Vrubel). Interestingly, despite the church’s very obviously Russian aspect, its principle architect, A. Parland, was not even Russian by birth.

The church was closed for services in the 1930s, when the Bolsheviks went on an offensive against religion and destroyed churches all over the country. It remained closed and under restoration for over 30 years and was finally re-opened in 1997 in all its dazzling former glory. The view of the church from Nevsky Prospect is absolutely breathtaking.

Location: Naberezhnaia kanala Griboyedova. Reopened in late August 1997 after almost 30 years of restoration.

Church of the Savior on Spilt Blood (1883-1907, architect A. Parland) was erected on the place where Russian Emperor Alexander II was assassinated. Alexander II was a very progressive tsar. In 1861 he abolished serfdom, and people gave him a title Tsar the Liberator. He wanted to make Russia a Constitutional Monarchy. But on the 1st of March, 1881, he was killed by I. Grinevitsky (revolutionary, a member of People's Will organization). After his tragic death Alexander II was given a title Tsar the Martyr. The church is a unique architectural monument. It is richly decorated with mosaics outside and inside (7000 square meters). It is the only building in Russian (Pseudo Russian) style in St. Petersburg.

The Church of Our Saviour on Blood This marvelous Old Russian-style church was built on the spot where Emperor Alexander II was assassinated on March 1, 1881. Built in 1883-1907, the church was designed in the spirit of sixteenth- and seventeenth century Russian architecture, inspired particularly by St Basil's Cathedral on Red Square in Moscow.

The interior of the church, a memorial to the late Emperor Alexander II, was decorated with different marbles and several thousand square yards of mosaics. These mosaics were far from being ordinary; their surface was left unpolished, so that they reflect sunlight, which impressed worshipers and other visitors alike.

After the October Revolution of 1917 the church met the sad fate of most churches in the country. "The Savior" was closed for services in the late 1920s, then briefly used for an exhibition of revolutionary propaganda and soon started to fall into decay, being deprived of adequate maintenance. Several times it was suggested that the church be torn down, for it stood as an "inappropriate" symbol of Christianity amidst the largely atheistic country. It is by a true miracle that the church was saved. Since 1970 the church has been managed by the staff of the St Isaac's Cathedral. A long careful restoration began, which has lasted for over 25 years.

Now with scaffolding already removed, the bell-tower dome gilded, and the interiors carefully restored, the church opened its doors to visitors. The official opening took place in August, 1997 and you can now see this jewel in the crown of St. Petersburg in its stunning beauty.

A great site for taking pictures. Lots of souvenir stalls nearby.

Kunstpladsen
Kunstpladsen - Frommer Pushkin himself is the subject of another monument, at the center of the Square of the Arts (Ploshchad Isskustv). The square is the real architectural masterpiece here, forming a nucleus of cultural institutions, while the Pushkin statue, built in 1957, is little more than a landmark. Originally designed by Carlo Rossi, an Italian-Russian architect, the square acquired many of its buildings in later years, but they all adhered to his original vision. Take a moment on one of its benches to appreciate its lines, then walk around the square to take in Mikhailovsky Palace (now the Russian Museum), the Ethnography Museum delicately and elegantly added later, the Mussorgsky Theater, the Operetta Theater, and the Philharmonic. The closest metro stop is Gostiny Dvor.

Arts Square is a testimony to the effectiveness of the originally planning that went into the city. The square’s plan was drawn up by the Italian architect Carlo Rossi, who spent most of his life working in Russia and is considered by many to be a native Russian architect (both his contemporaries and present-day art historians have tended to call him by his Russified name Karl Ivanovich Rossi). He was responsible for all the most prominent buildings built on the square, including the Mikhailovsky Palace, which today houses the Russian Museum. According to the "Classical" style of the day, all the buildings lining the square are similar in design and form a harmonious architectural ensemble.

Arts Square derives its name from the cluster of museums, theaters and concert halls that surround it. Some of the most notable include:

The Russian Museum, one of the country's two largest collections of Russian art. The Ethnographic Museum, representing all the ethnic cultures of the former USSR. The Maly Opera and Ballet Theater (also known as the Mussorgsky Theater), often referred to as "the city's second fiddle to the Mariinsky for opera and ballet" but still a well-respected and centrally located theater. The Large Concert Hall (Bolshoi Zal) of the St. Petersburg Philarmonia – the city’s prime classical music venue.

Det Russiske Museum
The Russian Museum is the perfect choice for those interested in Russia art from the 12th century to the mid-20th century. The museum’s collection can only be rivaled by that of the famous Tretyakov Gallery in Moscow. The museum’s central building is the yellow, white-columned Mikhailovsky Palace, built between 1819 and 1825 for Grand Duke Mikhail, the brother of Alexander I and Nicholas I. The building was bought by the government during the late 19th century and was turned into the "Russian Museum of the Emperor Alexander III" in 1898. A new wing, the Benois Building, was added to the museum at the start of this century to help house the museum’s growing collections.

Although the museum’s floor plan is somewhat vast and confusing, the collections are incredible and number over 320,000 works, ranging from 12th century icons to canvasses by the 20th century artists Chagall and Malevitch. We recommend a guided tour as the best way to see all the highlights and get the most out of the museum. Enjoy!

Location: Inzhenernaya Ulitsa, 4/2 Open: 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. Closed: Tuesdays

In the middle of Arts Square stands a Statue of Alexander Pushkin (1799-1836), Russia’s most famous and most beloved poet and the author of the novel-in-verse "Evgeny Onegin" and some of the most beautiful poetry written about St. Petersburg.

Det Russiske Museum er i modsætning til Eremitagen kun beskæftiget med russisk kunst fortrinsvis fra det 18. århundrede og frem. Hvis De ikke har set Tretjakov Galleriet i Moskva, skulle De afse tid til dette museum. Det har over 100 sale, så det er vigtigt at gøre op med sig selv hvad man helst vil se. »Den russiske Gainsborough«, Levitskijs værker fra det 16. århundrede hænger i sal nr. 10 og i sal nr. 67-70 er helliget 1800-tals kunstneren Ilja Repin - bl.a. hans berømte Pramdrageme på Volga. I de tilstødende sale findes en række gode landskabsbilleder af Korovin og Tjekhovs ven Isak Levitan. De må ikke gå glip af Leon Baksts vidunderlige portrætter af Djagilev og Sjaljapin i sal nr. 80, eller den store moderne kunst af Larionov, Gontjatova, Kandinskij og Malevitj (sal nr. 90-95). I sal nr. 69 hænger Nikolaj Altmans pragtfulde portræt af digterinden Anna Akbmatova. Museet ligger i det tidligere Mikhajlovskij Palads opført i 1619-25 til storfyrst Mikhail Pavlovitj, bror til zarene Alexander I og Nikolaj I. Paladset blev indrettet til museum af Nikolaj II i slutningen af det 19. århundrede.

Pushkin (Tsarskoye Selo) and Pavlovsk
The town of Pushkin (formerly Tsarskoye Selo) lies just outside St. Petersburg and has a marvelous ensemble of palaces and parks. It is particularly famous for its impressive baroque Catherine Palace, where Empress Catherine the Great lived and died. The palace was almost totally destroyed during World War II, but has risen like a phoenix from the ashes due to an extensive restoration program undertaken since the war.

The palace we see today was designed by the Italian architect Bartolomeo Rastrelli, the creator of the Winter Palace and Smolny Cathedral. Most of the restored interiors date back to the time of Empress Elizabeth, the daughter of Peter the Great, though there are some early 19th century interiors too. Catherine the Great chose to live in a separate wing of the palace, and even at the age of 60 she quite happily walked the length of the palace to reach the building’s private church every day.

Enjoy a visit to the palace, stroll along the alleys of the park with its numerous pavilions, ponds and sculptures and don’t forget to take a look at the Lyceum (Litzei) just next door to the palace, a 19th century school for the elite, where the famous Russian poet Alexander Pushkin and many other well-known Russian figures studied.

Further down the road visitors will find the Aleksandrovsky Palace, the favored home of the last Russian Tsar Nicholas II. It is from here that the whole Imperial family left in 1917 to travel to Yekaterinburg, where they were brutally murdered by revolutionaries. (Unfortunately, the palace is NOT open to the public).

(The Catherine Palace is open from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. and closed Tuesday and the last Monday of the month)

Just a few miles away from Pushkin lies the Imperial Estate of Pavlovsk, the residence of Emperor Paul I, the son of Catherine the Great. The estate’s magnificent palace sits on hill overlooking an English-style landscaped park, with a beautiful river running through it.

(The palace is open from 10:30 a.m. to 5 p.m. and close Fridays and the first Monday of the month).

Catherine II (the Great)
Born: April 21 (May 2), 1729 Szczecin, Pomerania (Prussian Kingdom) Died: November 6 (17), 1796 Tsarskoye Selo, Russia The future Catherine the Great was born a German princess in one of many tiny German states, but ended her life a powerful and enlightened ruler of the vast Russian Empire. In 1745 she married Prince Carl Peter Ulrich, the heir to the Russian throne (the future Emperor Peter III). Being a bright personality with a strong sense of determination she joined the Russian Orthodox Church, learned the Russian language and through personal study acquired a brilliant education. She was proud to be a friend and an active correspondent of some of the brightest thinkers of the day, such as the prominent philosophers of the French Enlightenment, Rousseau and Diderot.

In June 1762 Catherine took an active part in a coup against her husband Emperor Peter III. He was overthrown and later killed "in an accident", and Catherine became Russia's autocratic ruler. Throughout her long reign she undertook many reforms and ensured the extension of the Russian Empire by acquiring territories in Southern Ukraine and the Crimea. Amongst her reforms was the extension of rights and privileges granted to the Russian nobility, which won Catherine popularity among the Russian social elite.

Catherine had a string of sensationalized and widely publicized love affairs with various army officers and politicians, although much of what was reported was untrue. Nevertheless, she promoted most of her lovers to the highest ranks and some of them proved themselves extremely talented and able figures (for example Prince Potyomkin, a very prominent general and political figure of the day).

Catherine the Great, being the foreign element in the Romanov dynasty, wanted to establish strong links with earlier Russian history and the Romanov Tsars and with this in mind she commissioned an impressive monument to Peter the Great - the Bronze Horseman. Most experts agree that Catherine changed the appearance of St. Petersburg quite significantly, and turned it into one of the most impressive capital cities in European. Catherine the Great died in 1796 at the age of 67, having lived longer than any other Romanov monarch. She was buried in the Peter and Paul Cathedral in St. Petersburg.

Mariinsky (Kirov) opera and ballet theatre Address: 1, Teatralnaya Square The opera and ballet companies are famous all over the world. The repertoire includes such classics as Tchaikovsky's "Eugene Onegin", "Swan Lake" and works by Mozart, Verdi and Rossini. Other popular works are Massenet's ballet "Manon" and the operas "Don Juan" by Mozart, "War and Peace" by Prokofiev and Wagner's "Das Rheingold". The latest works are Tchaikovsky's "The Nutcracker" (with scenery by Mikhail Shemyakin), Puccini's "La Boheme" and Verdi's "Macbeth". The history of the Mariinsky theatre started in 1783 when the Bolshoi (Stone) Theatre was opened in Petersburg. Dramatic opera and ballet performances were staged there. Now there is the Saint-Petersburg Conservatoire. By the declare of Ekaterina II the Bolshoi (Stone) theatre was built on the site of that building, surpassed the great European theatres by its brilliance and luxury. In 1849 in the building, constructed by the project of Alberto Kavos, opposite the Bolshoy theatre, the circus was opened by a horse festive performance. It was designed to be used as a theatrical placing as well. On the night of 26 January 1859 the circus burnt. On its site, by the project of the same architect a new theatre was built. It was designed for music and drama performances. The name of the Mariinsky theatre was given in honour of the Emperor Alexander's II wife - Maria Alexandrovna. Russian opera and then ballet troupes of the Bolshoi Theatre came here. The theatre was opened on 2 October 1860 by Michail Glinka's opera "Life for Tsar". Blue and gold colours are the symbols of the Mariinsky theatre. Five-circled hall of the theatre remains almost unchanged after the rebuilding by Alberto Kavos in 1859. The hall is defined by emphasized festivity; it was designed as a hall of the leading theatre of Russian Empire. In 1935-1992 it was named after C.M.Kirov. The World premieres of many Russian opera masterpieces of classics were staged there, including Glinka's "Life for Tsar", "Ruslan and Ludmila", Musorgskiy's "Khovanshina" and "Boris Godunov", Borodin's "Prince Igor", Rimsky-Korsako's "Tale about Invisible Kitezh City and maiden Fevronia", P.I.Chaikovsky's "Queen of Spades". The original national vocal school was formed in the Mariinsky theatre. The fortunes of many world opera art stars. Great Fjodor Shaljapin, Ivan Ershov, Nikolai Figner, Leonid Sobinov, Felija Litvin, later Nikolay Peskovsky, Sophia Preobrazhenskaya, Mark Reyzen, Georgyi Nelepp sang on the stage. The Mariinsky theatre has always had piety to classic traditions. Beside that there were performances in XX century, that became epoch-making, turning point for the development of new aesthetics for opera theatre. Alexander Benua, Konstantin Korovin, Alexander Golovin and Valentin Serov discovered new possibilities of theatrical drawing to the world. Vsevolod Meyerhold staged his genius performances here. They were of great interest all over the world later on. The theatre repertoire includes the "golden fund" works of opera classics. For the last years the theatre has staged performances together with the greatest world opera stages: Covent Garden, Opera de Bastil, La Scala, La Fenice, Tel-Aviv Opera and San-Francisco Opera.

ANITJKOV-PALADSET Anitjkov-paladset er en af de først opførte stenbygninger på Nevskij Prospekt (fra midten af 1700-tallet) ved Fontanka-floden. Paladset var i 49 år rammen om en væsentlig del af Kejserinde Dagmars liv i Rusland. Hun og Alexander fik Anitj­kov som bryllupsgave, og de boede der som storfyrstepar. Selv som kejserinde foretrak Dagmar Anitjkov frem for Vinterpaladset. Efter Alexan­der III’s død blev Dagmar boende på Anitjkov som enkekejserinde. Efter revolutionen blev paladset brugt som børnenes centrale fri­tids­hjem (pionerpaladset). Nu kaldes det ”Paladset for de unges kreativitet,” idet begrebet ”pioner” forsvandt sammen med sovjetsystemet.

“Moskva” hotel The address: Alexandro-Nevskogo ploshad (square), 2. The number of rooms/ storeys: 827/ 8. The year of erection/ reconstruction: 1976/ 2006 The centre of the city: 1,5 km. The river port: 6,5km The sea port: 9km.

Om den russiske revolution og Lenin
Lenin og Trotsky På Den Røde Plads i Moskva den 20. maj 1920 I starten af 1900-tallet var Rusland et forarmet land, hvor få havde for meget og de fleste for lidt. Den enevældige zar Nikolaj II modsatte sig alle reformforsøg og fængslede eller forviste tusinder af modstandere. Politiske partier var forbudt helt frem til Februarrevolutionen i 1905, som tvang zaren til at abdicere. En af de eksilerede var Vladimir Iljitj Lenin. Han var i 1897 blevet anklaget for politisk agitation og sendt i eksil. Her blev han leder af den yderliggående fløj af de russiske socialdemokrater. Selv om de to fløje i partiet var lige store, kaldte han sin egen fløj for "Bolsjeviki", majoritet, og den anden fløj for "Mensjeviki", minoritet. Bolsjevikkerne gik ind for proletariatets diktatur. I april 1917 vendte Lenin hjem til Rusland og tog nogle måneder senere magten ved et kup. Og Lenins Rusland skulle vise sig ikke så meget at være proletariatets, men de politiske kommissærers diktatur.

Byen blev efter Februarrevolutionen 1918 og tsardømmets fald, hjemsted for i alt tre borgerlige regeringer, der arbejdede for at give Rusland en grundlov og afholde frie valg. Den borgerlige regerings magt blev imidlertid udfordret af bolsjevikpartiet, der krævede magten overdraget til fabriksarbejderne. På trods af at disse udgjorde et meget lille mindretal i byen og endnu mindre på landsplan. Afgørende for at bolsjevikkerne kunne overtage magten i byen under den efterfølgende Oktoberrevolution var Lenins ankomst til byen. Han var af tyskerne blevet hjulpet ud af sit eksil i Schweiz.

Oktoberrevolutionen i 1918 brød ud i Petrograd og blev startskuddet til den russiske borgerkrig. Under denne blev byen en højborg for bolsjevikkerne og var sammen med Moskva disses stærkeste bastion. Byen forblev Ruslands hovedstad, indtil Lenin og hans styre flygtede til Moskva 5. marts 1918. Lenin døde i Moskva 23. januar 1924, og 3 dage efter blev Petrograd omdøbt til Leningrad (Lenins By).

The Revolution of 1905 began here and spread rapidly into the provinces. 1917 saw the beginnings of the Russian Revolution. The first step (the February Revolution) was the removal of the Tsarist government and the establishment of two centers of political power, the Provisional government and the Petrograd Soviet. The Provisional government was overthrown in the October Revolution, and the Russian Civil War broke out. The city's proximity to anti-revolutionary armies, and generally unstable political climate, forced Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin to flee to Russia's historic former capital at Moscow on March 5, 1918. The move may have been intended as temporary (it was certainly portrayed as such), but Moscow has remained the capital ever since. On January 24, 1924, three days after Lenin's death, Petrograd was renamed Leningrad in his honor. The central committee's reason for renaming the city again was that Lenin had led the October revolution. Deeper reasons existed at the level of political symbolism: Saint Petersburg had stood as the head of the Tsarist empire. After Moscow it was the largest city and the change gave great prestige to Lenin. The renaming to Leningrad emphatically symbolized the upheaval that had occurred to the social and political system.

Revolutionernes By De russiske revolutioner i det tyvende århundrede, den i 1905 og de to i 1917, i marts og oktober begyndte alle i Skt. Petersborg, eller som byen hed i 1917, Petrograd. På fabrikkerne rundt i byen havde de socialistiske partier stærke organisationer, og netop det at fabrikkerne var så store gjorde det muligt at mobilisere store arbejderskarer til demonstrationer og opstande. Selv om det nuværende styre tager afstand fra den kommunistiske fortid, er byen fortsat rig på mindesmærker, statuer og mindeplader der refererer til begivenheder og personer fra revolutionernes tid. Mange gader og pladser der blev omdøbt i Sovjetunionens tid, har fået deres gamle navne igen, og flere vil formentlig få det, men der er fortsat mange stednavne i Skt. Petersborg der skal minde om begivenheder og helte fra revolutionsårene.

Krydseren Aurora der gav startskuddet til Oktoberrevolutionen, ligger til kaj og kan beses. Vinterpaladset, hvor den provisoriske regering holdt til i 1917, er nu kunstmuseum. Det Tauriske Palæ, oprindeligt bygget til Katarina II´s elsker, fyrst Potjomkin af Tauris (Krim), senere brugt både som hestestald, som sæde for Statsdumaen og som kongreshus for sovjetkongresser, er et smukt eksempel på russisk klassicistisk arkitektur og ligger i en velholdt park der normalt er åben for offentligheden. Også Smolnyj instituttet, hvor bolsjevikkernes revolutionskomite havde hovedsæde, kan beses.

Sovjetstatens første leder, Vladimir Iljitj Lenin, blev efter sin død næsten guddommeliggjort. Hans gerning i Skt. Petersborg/Petrograd er blevet kortlagt næsten time for rime, og hvert eneste hus han har sovet i, holdt møde i, hver eneste fabrik eller lokale hvor han har holdt en tale er gjort til mindestue eller har fået en mindeplade på muren. Det er en interessant sport at finde mindeplader i Skt. Petersborg.

St. Petersborgs belejring under 2. verdenskrig
Under 2. verdenskrig - den store fædrelandskrig, som russerne benævner den - var St. Petersborg - eller rettere Leningrad - omringet af tyske tropper fra den 8. september 1941 til den 27. januar 1944, mere end 2 år. Leningrad blev på direkte ordre fra Hitler, som ønskede at ødelægge byen, konstant bombarderet, samtidig med, at den var afskåret fra forsyninger udefra. Mere end 1 million mennesker døde, heraf omkring 800.000 civile. Hitler gav ordre til forberedelse af en stor nytårsfest i 1942 i vinterhaven på Hotel Astoria, og den trykte invitation til festen er udstillet på bymuseet. Under den tyske blokade kunne forsyninger til byens 3 millioner indbyggere kun komme ad luftvejen eller over Ladoga søen, men tyske bombardementer ødelagde stort set alle transporter. I oktober 1941 udgjorde den daglige ration 400 gram brød for en mandlig arbejder og 200 gram til kvinder og børn. I november samme år blev rationerne nedsat til hhv. 250 og 125 gram. Hertil kom, at vandforsyningen var ødelagt. I december 1941 omkom mere end 53.000 mennesker i Leningrad af sult, og ligene lå spredt i byens gader. Værnemagten affyrede omkring 150.000 granater og kastede 100.000 bomber over byen. Find en afslutning??? For the heroic tenacity of the city's population, Leningrad became the first Soviet city to be awarded the title Hero City in 1945.

Den Belejrede By Den 22. juni 1941 blev Sovjetunionen over en bred front angrebet af Tyskland. Angrebet var velforberedt, hvad sovjettropperne ikke var. Fremrykningen ind over det flade steppeland gik meget hurtigt og standsedes først i september foran Leningrad og Moskva. Finland var gået med tyskerne i angrebet på Sovjetunionen, og Leningrad blev således helt omringet i efteråret 1941, med tyske tropper langt inde i den sydlige del af byen. Hverken myndigheder eller befolkning nåede i tide at fatte hvor stor faren var, og kun ganske få af Leningrads beboere blev evakueret inden omringningen. Næsten tre millioner mennesker blev indespærret i området mellem Den Finske Bugt og Ladogasøen. Det lykkedes at få etableret et transportsystem over Ladogasøen og nogle fødevarer - 25.000 tons, svarende til rationeret forbrug i 20 dage - kom til den belejrede by i september og oktober 1941. En frygtelig katastrofe ramte byen den 8. september, da tyskerne ved et meget målrettet luftbombardement fik ram på byens største lagerbygningskompleks, Badajev-pakhusene, der rummede store lagre af korn, sukker, kød, fedt og smør. Byen skulle efter tyskernes opfattelse ikke erobres, men sultes ihjel. I november frøs Ladogasøen til, så meget at den ikke kunne besejles, men ikke så meget at man kunne køre på den. Først ind i december kunne man åbne "Livets Vej", transportvejene over søens is. Men der skal mange forsyninger til at holde liv i en millionby, og rationeringskortenes rationer blev mindre og mindre. I november-december var det daglige kalorietal pr indbygger mellem 600 og 1000 kalorier. I december 1941/ januar 1942 døde over 200 000 indbyggere af sult. I alt døde mellem 600 000 og 900 000 mennesker af sult som følge af den tyske blokade. Dertil kommer et stort antal dræbte ved bombardementer og krigshandlinger. I 1942 gennemførtes en systematisk evakuering af indbyggerne, og i november var byens folketal kun 650 000, hovedsagelig (i stort omfang kvindelige) arbejdere på byens krigsindustrier og soldater. Der var mange massetragedier under 2. verdenskrig, men ingen som Leningrads med næsten en million ofre - men byen overgav sig ikke. Det var den største og længste belejring nogen moderne by har gennemgået.

Cossacks Folk show
Address: 1, Victory square (ploshad Pobedi). The Concert hall of “Pulkovskaya Park Inn” hotel. The Northern-West Ensemble of Cossacks, guided by Alex.Mukienko was created in 1995. It successfully appears on Russian and world’s famous stages. The Ensemble’s mastery has already earned people’s gratitude in different countries such as Japan, the USA and all over Europe. The Ensemble consists of chorus, ballet group and orchestra. Proceeding the traditions of National art, the artists bring some new “colours” to the Cultural Heritage of the Cossacks as well as to the Russian National Treasury of art. You can enjoy the programme in the hall of “Pulkovskaya Park Inn” hotel to the accompaniment of a talanted instrumental band of virtuosos. The Cossacks folk show is capable to charm the exigentest connoisseur of National art.

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1. dag i Moskva: Kreml, Den Røde Plads, katedraler, GUM og cirkus
2. dag i Moskva: Sejrspladsen, Metroen, Novodevichy, KBS og Stalins 7 Søstre
Sejlads fra Moskva til St. Petersborg
1. dag i St. Petersborg: - under udarbejdelse
2. dag i St. Petersborg: - under udarbejdelse
Tilbage til Rejseholdets forside